Nontraditional Career Preparation: Root Causes & Strategies is a literature review organized into research theories, evidence, recommendations and strategies, and effective practice and resources based upon root causes. It is designed to be used by CTE professionals at secondary and postsecondary institutions.

The information is most effectively utilized when embedded in a program improvement process that involves self-study.

The information is available in

  1. Print form (PDF, with references). You will be asked to complete a brief survey about your intended use of document. The PDF will download after the survey is submitted. Thank you for your assistance!
  2. Chart form (condensed), and
  3. Web form (click on links below).

Education:Root Causes

Academic Proficiency

Access to and Participation in Math, Science and Technology


Instructional Strategies

School/Classroom Climate

Support Services

Career Information:Root Causes

Materials and Practices, including Assessment, Interest Inventories, and Marketing and Recruitment

Early Intervention

Characteristics of an Occupation: Job Satisfaction/Career-Family Balance/Occupational Perception/Wage Potential

Family:Root Cause

Family Characteristics

Internal/Individual:Root Causes

Self-Efficacy, Attribution, and Stereotype Threat

Societal Issues:Root Causes

Media (negative), Media (positive), Peers, Role Models/Mentoring, Collaboration